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Practical tools to trigger support socialinnovation

The Consequences of Consistency-in-Action

Now of course, as mentioned earlier this power can be used for good as well as for evil. Instead of reading a book you could watch your favorite television show for 30 minutes per day while snacking on your favorite chocolate bar. This habit/routine, of course, won’t make much of a difference today. Nor will it make much of a difference tomorrow, next week or next month. But over the course of a year, or over the course of many years as your tummy grows and your health and mobility deteriorate, you may look back at your life and wonder:

How in the world did I get this way?

And this is just one of the many Slip on Sneakers for Women On Sale Ruthenium Leather 2017 35 4 45 55 6 75 Bottega Veneta Outlet Order Online 100% Authentic Cheap Online Affordable For Sale MZVXfI
that people typically indulge in consistently every single day. And because we just don’t see that it makes a difference today or tomorrow, it effectively just doesn’t matter because itsimply doesn’t register on our intellectual radar.

You see, the problem is that many people live with a short-term view of their world. They rarely see past the moment. They just can’t quite comprehend how the actions they take today and the consistent actions they take over time will impact them years down the track. Or maybe they do understand, but unfortunately just don’t have the necessary DUNGAREES Dungarees Title A Cheap Fast Delivery Footlocker Manchester Great Sale Cheap Price Shop Offer Online fHKeVa0WGW
to hold themselves back. This is after all how addictions are born, and habits are very much like addictions. They are things that we just can’t help but indulge in over an extended period of time. We might, of course, feel as though we can quit at any time and turn our lives around, but in reality, we are only deluding ourselves.

the problem is that many people live with a short-term view of their world. They just can’t quite comprehend how the actions they take today and the consistent actions they take over time will impact them years down the track.

Life is too precious to waste away in this way. Your future rests purely in your hands. You and you alone can decide within each moment what you will focus on. You and you alone can choose an alternate course of action. And you and you alone can make up your mind to start making positive changes today. And it all begins with something small and positive; something you commit yourself to doing each and every single day without fail for weeks, months and years.

You and you alone can decide within each moment what you will focus on. it all begins with something small and positive; something you commit yourself to doing each and every single day without fail for weeks, months and years.

You, of course, won’t see much of a difference today, nor will you see a difference tomorrow, next week or even next month. But over the course of many years, your consistency-in-action will build the foundations of a far richer, lace fastening Tshirt White Dondup Outlet Big Sale Discount New Ebay Fashionable Cheap Online q5QaZ7T
and more fulfilling life.

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Amy Smith
UX Design,UI Design, Web Design. I like sharing All thing about design! https://twitter.com/Mockplus

In the field of product design, there’s no denying that usability testing is one of the best ways to improve your products, but the user researchers who conduct usability testing are never enough.To enable our colleagues in all departments to carry out research testing in an efficient way, we’ve made some easy-to-understand documents tutorials, including this article on usability testing. Designers always take BOSS Mens Logo TShirt Rn Pyjama Top HUGO BOSS Cheap Sale Prices bOXlQXL
first. One thing should be noted that the testing methods introduced in this article are simple informal with small sample and an objective of discovering serious problems. If you need a further understanding of testing principles methods, the following books are for your reference:

Before we get started, I would like to inform you that the earlier you make the usability testing, the better. And you could make the testing with only some simple facilities.

What is usability testing?

Actually, usability testing is not complicated to understand. Simply speaking, it means observing people using the product. To be more specific, it can be defined that solving the usability problems through observing representative users and completing typical tasks, which aims to make the product easier to use.

How to plan and conduct a usability testing?

According to the definition above, we are going to figure out the following questions in this part:

1.How to design the testing task?

2.How to find your users?

3.How to conduct the testing?

4.How to find out usability problems by analyzing data collected?

How to design the testingtask?

Designing the testing task is the core of the preliminary work in usability testing. The standard of recruiting the users should be made after you finishing designing the usability testing process as the task involved in this testing is directly related to users’ operation experience. Once we clarify the former, the next step would be clear, too.

Before making a plan for your testing, ask yourself these questions:

“Does my plan actually reflect the real goals of users (not what I personally think users would like to do)?”

After asking yourself this question more than 3 times and finally finding the right answers, you could start to design your testing.

Here are some common methods:

A)Firstly, make a to-do list and describe the tasks involved in the testing with simple short sentences and some usability question examples. This is for those colleagues of this project. Since it’s a quick testing, the tasks should be not so many, but crucial, central and those you considerederror-prone.

B)After choosing the important tasks, you should switch the task to a scene which means the content of what are you going to tell or show to your users. It is necessary to take the users’ goals and motivations into consideration, because your functions of the product are not important for users, what really matters is their targets and the process of achieving targets. At this time, you can ask yourself that question above.

C)Determine the requirements of these tasks, such as, if you need a new account or if it is necessary to prepare the documents and so on.

D)Pre-testing. Pre-testing is mainly to find out some problems of your plan, you can ask your colleagues to help you complete it quickly at their lunch time.

How to findusers?

Before you find users by making use of various resources, you should clarify that what kind of users you need.

What kind of people do youneed?

Previously, in the testing plan stage, when we communicate with the colleagues in product/design apartment,They always use terms like “age of 25–30”, “office workers”, etc. But in fact, we are mostly concerned about the behaviors of the users, so, when we decide the standards of choosing the users, we should be concerned about the experience and behavior of using the product, rather than demographic characteristics. To get more details of this topic, you can read this article about front closure bikini top Multicolour Fleur du Mal Cheap Sale Genuine Z89iNTARu

How many users do youneed?

When it comes to how many users do we need in the testing, you have to look at this classic chart of Nielsen, though it is debated that whether five users are enough or not in this field. However, in practice, as long as you can find the appropriate person in the first stage, five users are enough to find some significant usability problems. Of course, here I would like to emphasize again that the purpose of quick testing is to find serious problems rather than all problems.

In addition, we also find that when product and design staffs are observing the first three users, they would always focus on it and make records quickly. However, when it turns to the fifth or more, new information would be less, which result in these researchers get bored or even fall asleep (like the rabbit in this chart). Therefore, testing users within 5 members would make researchers concentrate on the testing and more likely to observe and listen to the ideas of users.

How to findusers?

After identifying the criteria and the number of users, it’s time to consider “How to find your users?”. Since it is a quick testing, so I suggest you try to exhaust all means, no matter you look for colleagues, friends, friends of friends, or use website advertising, etc. As long as you can finish your testing fast and follow the requirements of the testing, you can choose any means you want. By the way, having a usual list of users would be better.

How to conduct usability testing

As it is a quick testing, the role of the host would change from user researcher to the designer or product staff. Therefore, I have to emphasize that when you are doing the testing, do not try to teach users how to use the product as well as promote the your product to the user.

Tips: things being tested can be your product or the prototype of product (especially for software).

When you test the usability of a prototype, it’s important to simulate the usage scenario. If the product is used on a mobile end, it should be test on a mobile end, so you should make sure the prototype tool you used have the capability of sharing across devices. Some Shop For Sale Online Sale For Nice Clancy jeans Isabel Marant Exclusive Sale Online O2Y14xrzNq
like Mockplus enable users to view a project on your Pad or phone by scanning the QR code or entering project code, etc. which greatly facilitate the testing. Except for Mockplus, Axure share has similar sharing functions.

What does the hostdo?

What does the recorderdo?

No matter it is a real-time observation (with special experience rooms or usability testing tools), or it needs to look back to observe by videos, you should notice that the key point of your records are not what the user said, but how do they use your product. Remember, what did they do in the testing is more important than what did they say. Well, since this testing is made to find out some serious problems that are always obvious, you are supposed to record these problems without discussing the solutions to them, because these solutions proposed by you or the users are not the best sometimes. You can consider this issue quietly or discuss it with your colleagues later.

How to find out usability problems by analyzing data?

After completing the testing, moderators and observers need to quickly sort out the useful information with their fresh memories by using stickers, a whiteboard or creating a document to record these problems. In short, you should quickly write down their operations and the problems they raised or you found. However, you are not supposed to make any conclusion immediately.

After all the testing has been done and all stickers, lists have been collected, you could find out the most serious problems and fix them quickly. In this session, the key point is to make sure that which questions are most important and can be repaired quickly. Only in this way the testing results are executable, not just a list of archived issues. After reading this article, I believe you would be clearer about how to conduct usability testing.


Translator: Julie

Original website: uedc

Original link: uedc.163.com/4151.html

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Methionine is the initiating amino acid in the synthesis of eukaryotic proteins; N -formyl methionine serves the same function in prokaryotes. Because most of these methionine residues are subsequently removed, it is apparent that their role lies in the initiation of translation, not in protein structure. In eukaryotes, translation initiation involves the association of the initiator tRNA (met-tRNA i met ) with eIF-2 and the 40S ribosomal subunit together with a molecule of mRNA. Drabkin and Rajbhandary ( 3 ) suggest that the hydrophobic nature of methionine is key to the binding of the initiator tRNA to eIF-2. Using appropriate double mutations (in codon and anticodon), they were able to show that the hydrophobic valine could be used for initiation in mammalian cells but that the polar glutamine was very poor.

Cysteine plays a critical role in protein structure by virtue of its ability to form inter- and intrachain disulfide bonds with other cysteine residues. Most disulfide linkages are found in proteins destined for export or residence on the plasma membrane. These disulfide bonds can be formed nonenzymatically; protein disulfide isomerase, an endoplasmic reticulum protein, can reshuffle any mismatched disulfides to ensure the correct protein folding ( 4 ).

S -Adenosylmethionine (SAM) 4 is a key intermediate in methionine metabolism. Discovered in 1953 by Cantoni ( 5 ) as the “active methionine” required for the methylation of guanidioacetate to creatine, it is now evident that SAM is a coenzyme of remarkable versatility ( Fig. 2 ). In addition to its role as a methyl donor, SAM serves as a source of methylene groups (for the synthesis of cyclopropyl fatty acids), amino groups (in biotin synthesis), aminoisopropyl groups (in the synthesis of polyamines and, also, in the synthesis of ethylene, used by plants to promote plant ripening), and 5′-deoxyadenosyl radicals. SAM also serves as a source of sulfur atoms in the synthesis of biotin and lipoic acid ( 6 ). In mammals, however, the great bulk of SAM is used in methyltransferase reactions. The key to SAM's utility as a methyl donor lies in the sulfonium ion and in the electrophilic nature of the carbon atoms that are adjacent to the sulfur atom. The essence of these methyltransferase reactions is that the positively charged sulfonium renders the adjoining methyl group electron-poor, which facilitates its attack on electron-rich acceptors (nucleophiles).

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Metabolic versatility of S-adenosylmethionine.

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Metabolic versatility of S-adenosylmethionine.

SAM can donate its methyl group to a wide variety of acceptors, including amino acid residues in proteins, DNA, RNA, small molecules, and even to a metal, the methylation of arsenite ( 7 , 8 ). At present, about 60 methyltransferases have been identified in mammals. However, the number is almost certainly much larger. A bioinformatic analysis of a number of genomes, including the human genome, by Katz et al. ( 9 ) has suggested that Class-1 SAM-dependent methyltransferases account for 0.6–1.6% of open reading frames in these genomes. This would indicate about 300 Class 1 methyltransferases in humans, in addition to a smaller number of Class 2 and 3 enzymes. In humans, it appears that guanidinoacetate N -methyltransferase (responsible for creatine synthesis) and phosphatidylethanolamine N -methyltransferase (synthesis of phosphatidylcholine) are the major users of SAM ( 10 ). In addition, there is substantial flux through the glycine N -methyltransferase (GNMT) when methionine intakes are high ( 11 ). An important property of all known SAM-dependent methyltransferases is that they are inhibited by their product, S -adenosylhomocysteine (SAH).

We have provided a set of examples where we have worked in new ways that are very productive, and therefore satisfying. The next step is for you to analyze the collaborative writing situations you are in day-by-day and craft a method that best suits. The possibilities are very rich.

Acknowledgments. Portions of this work were supported by National Science Foundation grant ACI-1322304 and a Google Focused Research Award to Judy and Gary Olson. Helpful comments on an earlier draft were provided by Tom Boellstorf, Bonnie Nardi, and Bob Glushko along with anonymous reviewers.



1. Birnholtz, J. and Ibara, S. Tracking changes in collaborative writing: Edits, visibility, and group maintenance. In , 2012, 809–818.

2. Boellstorff, T., Nardi, B., Pearce, C., and Taylor, T.L. Words with friends: Writing Collaboratively Online. , 5 (Sept.-Oct. 2013), 58–61.

3. Glushko, R. Collaborative authoring, evolution, and personalization for a 'Transdisciplinary' textbook. In

4. Group Technologies. Aspects: The first simultaneous conference software for the Macintosh, Version 1. Manual, (1991). Group Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA.

5. Halasz, F.G., Moran, T.P., and Trigg, R.H. Notecards in a nutshell. In (1987), 45–52.

6. Irish, P.M., and Trigg, R.H. Supporting collaboration in hypermedia: Issues and experiences. , 3 (1989), 192–199.

7. McGuffin, L. and Olson, G.M. ShrEdit: A shared electronic workspace. CSMIL Tech. Report, 1992. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

8. Olson, J.S., Olson, G.M, Storrosten, M. and Carter, M. Groupwork Close Up: A Comparison of the Group Design Process With and Without a Simple Group Editor. , 4 (1993), 321–348.

9. Olson, J.S., Wang, D., Zhang, J. and Olson, G.M. How people write together now. , 1 (2017), 1–40.

10. Russell, D.M., Burton, R.R., Jordan, D.S., Jensen, A-M., Rogers, R.A., and Cohen, J.R. Creating instruction with IDE: Tools for instructional designers. , 1 (2009), 3–16.

11. Wang, D., Olson, J.S., Zhang, J., Nguyen, T. and Olson, G.M. DocuViz: Visualizing Collaborative Writing. In , (2015), 1865–1874.


Ricardo Olenewa is a technical writer living in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Gary M. Olson ( DENIM Denim bermudas Liu Jo Brand New Unisex Sale Original Sale Supply TgBIq
) is Professor Emeritus of Informatics at the University of California at Irvine.

Judith S. Olson ( W118 By Walter Baker Woman Embellished Striped Cottonblend Top Coral Size M W118 by Walter Baker For Sale Aberdeen Limited Edition Sale Online Where Can I Order Free Shipping Shop NCj7xi8II
) is Professor Emerita of Informatics at the University of California at Irvine.

Daniel M. Russell ( Outlet Store SHIRTS Blouses Barba Fast Delivery CADBaI3qn
) is a senior research scientist at Google, Mountain View, CA.

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